Hepatobiliary case report and literature review of hepatic reactive lymphoid hyperplasia with positive anti-smooth muscle antibody and anti-nuclear antibody tests

Yong-Chang Zheng, Fu-Cun Xie, Kai Kang, Yue Shi, Yi-Lei Mao, Xin-Ting Sang, Shun-Da Du


Hepatic reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH) is a rare benign tumor of the liver that exhibits similar imaging characteristics to those of other hepatic malignant tumors; therefore, it requires novel biomarkers to be differentiated from the other tumors. A 69-year-old female was found to have a mass in the liver and was admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital for further evaluation. Most laboratory tests, including liver function tests, tumor biomarkers, and autoimmune markers were within normal range, except for positive antinuclear antibody and anti-smooth muscle antibody (SMA) tests. Diagnostic imaging, including ultrasonography, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging displayed a small hepatic mass suggestive of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Partial hepatectomy was performed, and histological diagnosis suggested RLH. Postoperative treatments included anti-infection, nutritional enhancement and liver protection. The suspicion of autoimmune hepatitis could not be confirmed. No recurrence or autoimmune disease was observed over 6-month follow-up. Positive anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-SMA may be potential biomarkers for hepatic RLH.