Article Abstract

Risk factors of developing visceral metastases at diagnosis in prostate cancer patients

Authors: Ning Xu, Yu-Peng Wu, Zhi-Bin Ke, Ying-Chun Liang, Xuan Tao, Shao-Hao Chen, Xiao-Dong Li, Hai Cai, Yun-Zhi Lin, Ting-Ting Lin, Xue-Yi Xue

Abstract

Background: Risk factors of visceral metastases in prostate cancer (PCa) patients are unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the risk factors of developing visceral metastases at diagnosis and the impact of these risk factors on the survival of patients with visceral metastatic PCa.
Methods: Patients with visceral metastases at the time of diagnosis of [2010–2015] PCa were identified using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Visceral metastatic distribution data were provided for liver, lung, and brain. The overall survival (OS) was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariable logistic and Cox regression models were performed to identify risk factors and analyze survival outcomes.
Results: A total of 13,092 eligible patients with stage IV PCa were identified from SEER database. A total of 598 patients developed visceral metastases at diagnosis among these patients. In multivariable analyses, patients with PSA >80 ng/mL had 1.545-fold higher risk of developing visceral metastases compared with those with PSA <20 ng/mL (P<0.001). The presence of bone metastasis and lymph node (LN) metastases were represented as risk factors of visceral metastases in stage IV PCa patients. Patients with two or three metastatic sites had 1.604-fold higher risk of shorter OS compared with those with one metastatic site (P<0.05). And patients with bone plus visceral metastases had 1.410-fold higher risk of shorter OS compared with those with visceral metastasis only (P<0.05). Age ≥70 had 1.621-fold higher risk of shorter OS compared with those with age <70 (P<0.05). T4 stage had 1.476-fold higher risk of shorter OS compared with those with T1 stage (P<0.05).
Conclusions: The incidence rate was increased among patients with visceral metastases in stage IV PCa at diagnosis. PSA over 80 ng/mL, the presence of bone metastasis and the presence of LN metastases were risk factors associated with a higher rate of development of visceral metastases in stage IV PCa patients. The presence of visceral plus bone metastases, two or three sites, age over 70, and T4 stage represent prognostic factors on survival outcomes in visceral metastatic PCa patients.

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