Article Abstract

Rutin induces apoptosis via P53 up-regulation in human glioma CHME cells

Authors: Xiaopeng Yan, Yali Hao, Shengli Chen, Guijun Jia, Yuhong Guo, Gangli Zhang, Chunhong Wang, Rui Cheng, Tao Hu, Xuan Zhang, Hongming Ji

Abstract

Background: Flavonoids, despite having low nutritional value, have numerous biological activities and extremely beneficial health effects. This study investigated the anticancer activity of rutin in human glioma CHME cells.
Methods: Cytotoxicity was determined through the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Protein expression was determined through Western blotting. Apoptosis was detected using annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) and fluorescence microscopy.
Results: Rutin induced maximum cytotoxicity in CHME cells, as revealed through MTT assays. Cell death induced by rutin was due to apoptosis via P53 up-regulation. Rutin induced nuclear condensation, fragmentation, and membrane blebbing, as determined through 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. Furthermore, rutin increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and caused a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, activating the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in CHME cells. The induction of apoptosis by rutin was further confirmed by the release of cytochrome c, up-regulation of BAX, and down-regulation of BCL, activated caspase 9, and caspase 3. The knockdown of P53 reversed rutin-induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner.
Conclusions: Rutin plays an important role in the induction of apoptosis in CHME cells. Based on these data, rutin should be further investigated as an anticancer agent in human glioma CHME cells.