Hsinyu Lee, Ph.D, Professor. National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
Markus H. Gräler, Ph.D, Professor, University Hospital Jena, 07740 Jena, Germany
Lysophospholipids (LPLs), including lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), are low molecular weight lipid metabolites derived from enzymatic processing of membrane phospholipids. These compounds bind to multiple G protein-coupled receptors and transduce many different intracellular signaling events. LPA and S1P receptors were originally identified as a family of orphan endothelial differentiation gene (EDG) receptors, and subsequently expanded into a larger group of receptors with important physiological functions. To date 6 LPA receptors and 5 S1P receptors are known. These receptors mediate survival, migration, and differentiation of cells, which are also important characteristics of tumors.