Multidisciplinary evaluation of locally advanced leiomyosarcoma in the lower rectum: a case report and literature review

Dengyong Xu, Yiming Lv, Linlin Chen, Min Chen, Fei Wang, Zhangfa Song, Xuefeng Huang, Da Wang


Rectal leiomyosarcoma is a rare neoplasm, and no standard therapeutic strategy has been established, other than surgical resection. The prognosis of advanced leiomyosarcoma in the rectum is poor. We describe a case of a 47-year-old man with a locally advanced rectal leiomyosarcoma who presented with anal bleeding and lower abdominal pain. After discussions by a multidisciplinary team (MDT), the patient received preoperative pelvic short-course radiotherapy followed by laparoscopic-assisted abdominoperineal resection. Adjuvant chemotherapy with doxorubicin and ifosfamide was administered postoperatively. Local recurrence was detected 13 months after the resection. The patient received chemotherapy with gemcitabine and docetaxel followed by radioactive particle implantation. Thereafter, apatinib was administered to gain systemic control. The patient died 24 months after the diagnosis. This case report draws attention to treatment with multidisciplinary therapy, as discussed by MDT, for rare locally advanced rectal leiomyosarcoma.