Molecular heterogeneity of localized prostate cancer: more different than alike

Jeffrey J. Tosoian, Emmanuel S. Antonarakis


Over the past decade alone, advances in medical and scientific technology have exponentially increased the volume of data available to clinicians. At the forefront of this movement is next-generation sequencing (NGS), which has allowed for molecular analysis of the entire human genome in a matter of hours (1). The application of NGS to prostate cancer (PCa) has undoubtedly revolutionized our understanding of the disease and holds great promise for improving diagnostic and prognostic accuracy (2). Indeed, previous authors have described genetic changes associated with unique molecular subtypes of PCa and have demonstrated that underlying genetic signatures better predicted clinical outcomes compared to traditional factors such as tumor stage, PSA level, and Gleason score (3,4).