Progress in the diagnosis and treatment of paraganglioma

Ben Wang, Jian Qiu


Neuroendocrine tumors derived from the adrenal medulla and the adrenal gland are called pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and paraganglioma (PGL), respectively. PGLs are neuroepithelial cell clusters associated with sympathetic or parasympathetic nerves, and are scattered throughout the body. According to the World Health Organization, the presence of distant metastases indicates malignant PGL. Most PGLs are benign, but their high secretion of catecholamines in the blood is associated with high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, and death. Further research on PGL is required to provide a theoretical basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment. This article reviews the genetics, clinical manifestations, benign and malignant forms, current major diagnostic methods, and progress in the treatment of PGL.