Myeloid leukemia switch as immune escape from CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) therapy

Fabiana Perna, Michel Sadelain

Abstract

Gardner et al. recently reported on two cases of mixed lineage leukemia (MLL)+ acute myeloid leukemia (AML) occurring after CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) therapy for MLL+ B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (1). This report provides new insights into mechanisms of immune escape from targeted immunotherapy and strategies to prevent their occurrence with adapted immune interventions.